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Imaging » Knowledge Center » Machine Vision 101 » Cameras

Introduction to Cameras

 
The camera contains a sensor that converts light from the lens into electrical signals. These signals are digitized into an array of values called pixels and processed by a Vision Appliance™ to perform the inspection.

The resolution (precision) of the inspection depends upon the working distance, the field-of-view (FOV), and the number of physical pixels in the camera's sensor. A standard VGA camera has 640 x 480 physical pixels (width x height), and each physical pixel is about 7.4 microns square. From these numbers, resolution can be estimated for your "real world" units. We usually specify resolution as a fraction of a physical pixel, as this is independent of your particular imaging set-up.

The sensors used by machine vision cameras are highly specialized, and hence more expensive than say, a web cam. First, it is desirable to have square physical pixels. This makes measurement calculations easier and more precise. Second, the cameras can be triggered by the machine vision system to take a picture based on the Part-in-Place signal. Third, the cameras have sophisticated exposure and fast electronic shutters that can 'freeze' the motion of most parts.

Teledyne DALSA offers a full range of Area Scan (2D sensors) and Line Scan (1D sensors) cameras that interface with our Vision Appliance controllers.

Genie camera

Teledyne DALSA Genie area scan camera

Spyder3 camera

Teledyne DALSA Spyder3 line scan camera

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